ALPHABETICAL BRAIN™ VOCABULARY
HUMANIST GALAXY
OF SECULAR SCIENCE STARS
ERIC KANDEL
September 6, 2020


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DISORDERED MIND:
What Unusual Brains
Tell Us About Ourselves

by Eric R. Kandel.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux,
2018 (285 pages)

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BOOK OUTLINE
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[Numbers in parentheses = page numbers]

FREUD QUOTE = “The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with only one-seventh of its bulk above water.” by Sigmund Freud (unpaged after verso at beginning of book)
    note = Abstracts of essential brain ideas: (page 93 diagram, 96, 107; memory 117; Alzheimer's disease 71, 122-123, 124-125, 126-127, 128-12, 148-149, 150-151, 156-157, 162-163; dopamine produced in substantia nigra and sent to the basal ganglia 165, 168; protein folding diseases 177-179; biology of emotion 178-181, 180; 4 structures diagram of emotions 181-182, 182-184; classic conditioning of fear 184-186; and human anxiety disorders.)
INTRODUCTION (1-6)

1) WHAT BRAIN DISORDERS CAN TELL US ABOUT OURSELVES (7-31)

2) OUR INTENSELY SOCIAL NATUREThe autism spectrum (32-55)

3) EMOTIONS AND THE INTEGRITY OF THE SELFDepression and bipolar disorder (56-83)

4) THE ABILITY TO THINK AND TO MAKE AND CARRY OUT DECISIONSSchizophrenia (84-106)

5) MEMORY, THE STOREHOUSE OF THE SELFDementia (107-129)

6) OUR INNATE CREATIVE CAPABILITYBrain disorders and art (130-157)

7) MOVEMENTParkinson's and Huntington's diseases (158-175)

8) THE INTERPLAY OF CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS EMOTIONAnxiety, post-traumatic stress, andfaulty decision-making (176-197)

9) THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE AND FREEDOM OF CHOICEAddictions (198-211)

10) SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE BRAIN AND GENDER IDENTITY (212-226)

CONSCIOUSNESSThe great remaining mystery of the brain (227-249)

[1] Freud's view of the mind (228-231)

[2] The cognitive psychological view of consciousness (231-234)

[3] The Biology of Consciousness (234-236)

[4] The global workspace (236-239)

[5] Correlation or causation (239-240)

[6] An overall perspective on the biology of consciousenss (240-241)

[7] Decision making (241-246)

[8] Psychoanalsis and the new biology of mind (246-240)

[9] Looking ahead (249)

CONCLUSIONComing full circle (251-254)

NOTES (255-265)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (267)

INDEX (269-285)
    Addictions
    Adolescence
    Aggression
    Art
    Axons
    Brain
    Brain disorders
    Broca’s area
    Cerebellum
    Cerebral cortex
    Cerebrum [note = missing from index]
    Cognitive behavior therapy
    Coma
    Concussion
    Conditioned stimulus
    Conditioning
    Consciousness
    Corpus callosum
    Cravings
    Creativity
    Death
    Decision making
    Delusions
    Dementia
    Depression
    Dopamine
    Emotion
    Exercise
    Explicit memory
    Fear
    Fighting an mating, link between
    Food
    Fight, flight, or freeze response
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Gene pathways
    Gender
    Gender identity
    Genetics
    Genome
    Habits [missing from index]
    Happiness
    Hormones
    Hypothalamus
    Ion channels
    Ions
    Language
    Learning
    Love
    Memory
    Mirror neuron system
    Mood disorders
    Movement
    Muscles
    Nucleus accumbens
    Perception
    Personality
    Pleasure
    Preconscious unconscious
    Prefrontal cortex
    Problems
    Proteins
    Reticular activating system
    Reward
    Science [missing from index]
    Self
    Senses
    Sex
    Social brain
    Stress
    Synapses
    Synaptic pruning
    System 1 mode of thinking
    System 2 mode of thinking
    Unconscious
    Visual cortex
    Wernicke’s area
    Working memory
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AUTHOR NOTES, SUMMARY,
AND BOOK DESCRIPTION

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AUTHOR NOTES = Eric R. Kandel is a University Professor and Fred Kavli Professor at Columbia University and a Senior Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his studies of learning and memory, he is the author of In Search of Memory, a memoir that won a Los Angeles Times Book Prize; The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind, and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present, which won the Bruno Kreisky Award in Literature, Austria's highest literary award; and Reductionism in Art and Brain Science: Bridging the Two Cultures, a book about the New York School of abstract art. He is also the coauthor of Principles of Neural Science, the standard textbook in the field.

SUMMARY = Eric R. Kandel, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his foundational research into memory storage in the brain, is one of the pioneers of modern brain science. His work continues to shape our understanding of how learning and memory work and to break down age-old barriers between the sciences and the arts.

BOOK DESCRIPTION = In his seminal new book, Kandel draws on a lifetime of pathbreaking research and the work of many other leading neuroscientists to take us on an unusual tour of the brain. He confronts one of the most difficult questions we face: How does our mind, our individual sense of self, emerge from the physical matter of the brain? The brain's 86 billion neurons communicate with one another through very precise connections. But sometimes those connections are disrupted. The brain processes that give rise to our mind can become disordered, resulting in diseases such as autism, depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, addiction, and post-traumatic stress disorder. While these disruptions bring great suffering, they can also reveal the mysteries of how the brain produces our most fundamental experiences and capabilities — the very nature of what it means to be human. Studies of autism illuminate the neurological foundations of our social instincts; research into depression offers important insights on emotions and the integrity of the self; and paradigm-shifting work on addiction has led to a new understanding of the relationship between pleasure and willpower. By studying disruptions to typical brain functioning and exploring their potential treatments, we will deepen our understanding of thought, feeling, behavior, memory, and creativity. Only then can we grapple with the big question of how billions of neurons generate consciousness itself.

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EDITORIAL BOOK REVIEWS
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LIBRARY JOURNAL REVIEW = Nobel Prize winner Kandel (biochemistry & biophysics, Columbia Univ.; The Age of Insight) explores topics such as autism, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, dementia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and addiction as they relate to brain function. Our understanding of how the brain works has advanced to such a degree that the divide between neurological and psychiatric diseases is narrowing and will in the future lead to better diagnosis, individualized treatment, and prevention. Particularly interesting is the chapter on addiction in which Kandel effectively argues that addiction is a brain disorder, not a moral failing, and should be treated as such. Having a firm grasp on the biology of the brain, especially as it relates to genes and the environment, improves our sense of both individuality and shared humanity. VERDICT Kandel's clear and straightforward writing makes this informative scientific exploration accessible and compelling to both medical practitioners, researchers, and general readers interested in how the mysteries of human nature arise from the physical matter of the brain.-Ragan O'Malley, Saint Ann's Sch., Brooklyn

PUBLISHERS WEEKLY REVIEW = Nobel Prize-winning-neuroscientist Kandel (Reduction in Art and Brain Science) delves optimistically into the current state of the "new biology of mind," a sophisticated framework deriving from "the marriage of modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience." Kandel consolidates data and ideas from core advances, including genetic research that proves some biological basis for various psychiatric disorders, and imaging techniques that indicate the function of specific brain structures. Emphasizing that brain disorders can yield insights into normal cognitive functioning, he looks to autism for understanding the social brain, depression and bipolar disorders for understanding the emotional brain, schizophrenia for understanding decision making, dementia for understanding memory, and Parkinson's and Huntington's disease for understanding movement.

His background as coauthor of the flagship textbook Principles of Neural Science is clear throughout, thanks to the highly accessible presentation, heavy on reader-friendly graphics and explanations of basics. Kandel's deep compassion for people is also evident, as when he discusses how understanding the biological basis for mental disorders might take them out of the realm of legal culpability. The result of his work is an easily comprehended, meticulous synthesis of current research into the biological grounding of the human mind. 77 color and b&w illus.

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