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Science, Society, Politics,
and the Human Brain

October 4, 2022

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Book #1:
    by DK Publishing/Smithsonian,
    2018 with a forword by
    Peter Snow (440 pages)
Book #2:
The Discovery of the Brain ---
and How It Changed the World

    by Carl Zimmer.
    Free Press/Simon & Schuster, 2005
    (i-xii, 367 pages)
Book #3:
Isaac Newton, the Royal Society,
and the Birth of the Modern World

    by Edward Dolnick.
    Harper/HarperCollins, 2011
    (i-xviii, 378 pages)
Book #4:
An Illustrated History of Neuroscience
    by Tom Jackson.
    Shelter Harbor Press and Worth Press, 2015
    (144 pages)

The Evolution of Earth
from the Big Bang

    by Pablo Carlos Budassi. Anshool Deshmukh. 4-22-22 [This article was published as part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from Creators around the world]

      Please use the link at the bottom
      of this file to view an amazing
      graphic of the data.

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      What is the Chronological Pattern of the History of Science, Society, Politics, and the Human Brain Beginning 7 Million Years Ago?

      [The Table of Contents List of Subjects from the Book, History of the World: Map by Map referenced on this website has been reversed. Now the Seven Major Periods of History start from Ancient (at the BOTTOM) to Modern (at the TOP).]
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      "YA" = Years Ago
      "MYA" = Million Years Ago
      "BCE" = Before Common Era (formerly "BC")
      "CE" = Common Era (formerly "AD")
      "c." = Approximately, before a date
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A Map Guided Tour
of World History

"Go on a guided tour through time! Maps do not just show us where to go, but also where we have been. A stunning overview of all human history, side by side with 140 custom maps. Learn how something like the printing press can define a time, or how the Allies in Europe could defeat the Nazis. There is so much to read about in this remarkable history book, and just as much to look at."

"Maps are more than the topography of the Earth or the borders of countries. Maps can represent the movement of people and ideas, and they provide a unique way to explain historical themes and explore sweeping periods of time. This stunning visual reference book starts with the evolution and migration of our oldest ancestors out of Africa."

"You can then look up maps about the Greece and Persian War, the Mongol Conquests, Medieval Europe's trade routes, and the rise of the Ottomans. There are maps about the colonization of North America, the scientific revolution, Napoleon's advances, and Britain's control of India."

"There is more in later centuries, like the Age of Imperialism, the American Civil War, industrialized Europe, and the transformation of Japan."

"This history book --- reaching across millennia --- gives you a broad view of the pivotal events in our past. It has 140 maps, complimented with pictures, info boxes, and timelines, there is so much to enjoy and learn about. You will gain a strong understanding of some of the forces and movements across continents that have shaped our world."

"In the book are concise and fascinating historical information, 140 custom maps, and many ways to engage in history that will interest many readers, from students wanting additional resources for school to history buffs that love a good book and cartography."

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by Peter Snow
(pages 8-9)

note = "The book tells the story of life on Earth in more meticulous detail and with more arresting pictures than I have ever seen before. I believe in this digital age, maps are more important than ever. People are losing sight of the need for them in a world where our knowledge is reduced to the distance between two zip codes." (page 8)

note = "To me, history without maps would be unintelligible. A country's history is shaped by its geography --- by its mountains and valleys, its rivers, its climate, its access to the sea, and its raw materials and harvests just as much as it is shaped by its population, its industry, its relations with its neighbors and its takeover by invaders from abroad." (page 8)

note = "For me, a journey - certainly the contemplation of a journey - is a voyage across a map. But this beautiful book offers the added dimension of a state-of-the-art journey through time. These maps display the story of the world in delightfully accessible form. They demonstrate in a spectacular way how there is no substitute for the printed page, for the entrancing spread of color across paper that we can touch and feel." (page 8)

note = "This book is more than a historical atlas: it describes the geography of history but adds revealing pictures as well... I have been using maps to tell stories all my life as a TV journalist and historian... For its depth of learning and its variety of ways of giving us a picture of the history of our planet, this magnificent account --- map by map --- is second to none." (page 9)

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        Since the index of the WORLD
        Seven Parts has been
        reversed, the Ancient Past is
        now on the BOTTOM while the
        Present Time is now on the
        TOP, you can TAP the
        "END KEY" on the keyboard
        and then SCROLL UP


        You can SCROLL DOWN
        to the BOTTOM of the file
        and then SCROLL UP
        from Ancient History
        to Modern History
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[162] Population and energy (346-347)

[161] The communication revolution [344-345]

[160] Iran and the Gulf Wars [342-343]

[159] Globalization (340-341)

[158] War in Yugoslavia (338-339)

[157] The collapse of communism (336-337)

[156] Economic boom and environmental cost (334-335)

[155] Israel and the Middle East (332-333)

[154] US interventions in Latin America (330-331)

[153] The Vietnam Wars (328-329)

[152] Civil rights and student revolt (326-327)

[151] Rockets and the space race (324-325)

[150] Decolonization of Africa (322-323)

[149] European unity (320-321)

[148] Decolonization of Southeast Asia (318-319)

[147] Korean War (316-317)

[146] The Cold War (314-315)

[145] Superpowers (312-313)

[144] The founding of Communist China (310-311)

[143] Partition of India (308-309)

[142] Hiroshima and Nagasaki (306-307)

[141] Japan defeated (304-305)

[140] Germany defeated (302-303)

[139] The war in the Pacific (300-301)

[138] Occupied Europe (298-299)

[137] Axis powers advance (296-297)

[136] World War II (294-295)

[135] The Spanish Civil War (292-293)

[134] Soviet Union under Stalin (290-291)

[133] China and nationalism (288-289)

[132] The Great Depression (286-287)

[131] Aftermath of the Great War (284-285)

[130] Political extremism (282-283)

[129] The Russian Revolution (280-281)

[128] The wider war (278-279)

[127] The trenches (276-277)

[126] World War I (274-275)

[125] The modern world (272-273)

2014 CE: Neuroscience History = The first direct "brain-to-brain" communication is achieved.

2013 CE: Neuroscience History = Neuroscientists learn how to remove a memory from the human brain.

2009 CE: Neuroscience History = The "Human Connectome Project" is launched to map the human brain and nervous system.

2008 CE: Neuroscience History = Prosthetic limbs that are controlled by electric signals from the brain are developed.

2004 CE: Neuroscience History = "Optogenetics" is developed: light is used to stimulate neurons.

1997 CE: Neuroscience History = Stanley Prusier wins the Nobel Prize for the discovery of "prions:" the biological cause of one kind of brain infection called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

1996 CE: Neuroscience History = Giacomo Rizzolatti discovers "mirror neurons" used by the brain to represent what others are doing.

1996 CE: Neuroscience History = Philosopher David Chalmers distinguishes the "hard problem" of consciousness from the easy problems.

1994 CE: Neuroscience History = The field of "neuro-theology" becomes established. It attempts to relate religious experience with brain activity.

1993 CE: Neuroscience History = The gene responsible for "Huntington's chorea" is identified.

1992 CE: Neuroscience History = Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ["fMRI"] is developed. It creates images of the working brain in real-time based upon blood flow; and it becomes a powerful tool in investigating all aspects of neuroscience.

1985 CE: Neuroscience History = Benjamin Libet finds a very small but significant time delay between nerve signals being sent to muscles and the reported conscious thought to make a movement. This suggests that free will might be either an illusion or not due to conscious decisions. [Webmaster thinks this is a BAD IDEA since latest research disproves it.]

1984 CE: Neuroscience History = Philosopher Derek Parfit questions how the contents of the human brain relates to a "person's identity."

1976 CE: Neuroscience History = Positron Emission Tomography ["PET" Scans] are developed to scan brain activity.

1974 CE: Neuroscience History = The "Glasgow Coma Scale" becomes the international standard for assessing the status of the central nervous system: to evaluate whether a human is dead or alive.

1966 CE: Neuroscience History = Eric Kandel discovers the chemical changes associated with learning by "studying the sea slug" whose large neurons showed how neurons work.

1966 CE: Neuroscience History = Michel Foucault suggests that human nature changes through history. He questions whether our "concepts of consciousness" have remained the same throughout human history.

1953 CE: Neuroscience History = Eugene Aserinsky discovers "REM" sleep [involving 90 minute cycles and rapidly moving eyelids] in his investigation of the "sleep cycle."

1952 CE: Neuroscience History = The chemistry of the "action potential spike" is discovered: it creates the electrical pulses in nerves.

1951 CE: Neuroscience History = William Grey Walter uses small autonomous robots to investigate "how relatively simple neural systems can learn" to perform complex behaviors.

1950s CE: Neuroscience History = Cognitive behavioral therapy becomes a new intervention in clinical psychology.

1949 CE: Neuroscience History = The "limbic system" is identified as the seat of basic drives and motivations (appetites). It is a primitive brain region that is devoted to survival and is common to all mammals.

1946 CE: Neuroscience History = The location of the "auditory cortex" is fully mapped.

1941 CE: Neuroscience History = Procedures to divide the two hemispheres of the brain by cutting the "corpus callosum" become common to control seizures.

1940s CE: Neuroscience History = William Herbert Sheldon proposes the now-debunked theory of "Constitutional Psychology." It claims that the unconscious is a representation of the physical body.

1938 CE: Neuroscience History = B.F. Skinner's "radical behaviorism" is able to explain human behavior without having to include hypothetical mental states.

1938 CE: Neuroscience History = Hans Asperger redeploys Eugen Bleuler's term "autism" to describe mental developmental disorders seen in children.

1935 CE: Neuroscience History = Antonio Egas Moniz performs the first "lobotomy." The Portuguese surgeon disconnected the "prefrontal cortex" of a patient who was suffering from a mental illness.

1934 CE: Neuroscience History = "Convulsive therapy" using chemically introduced seizures is developed to treat a range of mental disorders. Later, electroconvulsive systems are introduced in 1936.

1932 CE: Neuroscience History = The physiological and nervous mechanisms of hearing are revealed, showing that the ear is a series of transducers. The "cochlear" organ of the ear converts a fluid wave into electrical signals.

1930 CE: Neuroscience History = The "hypothalamus" is linked to rage and anger with the discovery of a "neural pathway" to the sympathetic nervous system, which controls heart rate, energy reserves, and body temperature.

1929 CE: Neuroscience History = Karl Spencer Lashley describes the phenomenon of "equipotentiality" where the remaining brain is able to take over the function of areas that are lost or damaged.

1921 CE: Neuroscience History = Otto Loewi discovers the first "neurotransmitter," a chemical used to send signals from one nerve cell to another.

1920s CE: Neuroscience History = The Gestalt Theory of Mind is developed. It is based on the assumption that the mind is a distinct whole composed of many separate parts.

1917 CE: Neuroscience History = Gordon Morgan Holmes investigates the effects of gunshot wounds to the head, to figure out the role of the "cerebellum" in "motor control" [bodily movements].

1916 CE: Neuroscience History = The standard IQ test becomes the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales.

1914 CE: Neuroscience History = Kinnier Wilson presents research on the "corpus striatum," which shows how it coordinates movements with motivations and inhibitions.


[1914 CE to Present Time]
    "World Wars, unprecedented technological and economic development, and explosive population growth have made the 20th and 21st centuries the most eventful in history." [Sections 125 - 138] (pages 270-347)

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[124] The eve of World War (268-269)

[123] Balkan wars (266-267)

[122] Germany and Italy unified (264-265)

[123] Balkan wars (266-267)

[122] Germany and Italy unified (264-265)

[121] Independent Latin America (262-263)

[120] Expansion of the US (260-261)

[119] Science and innovation (258-259)

[118] The Civil War (256-257)

[117] Japan transformed (254-255)

[116] Decline of Qing China (252-253)

[115] Foreign powers in China (250-251)

[114] Africa colonized (248-249)

[113] Russian Empire expands (246-247)

[112] Resistance and the Raj (244-245)

[111] The new imperialism (242-243)

[110] The age of imperialism (240-241)

[109] Mass migrations (238-239)

[108] Transport and communications (236-237)

[107] Socialism and anarchism (234-235)

[106] Industrialized Europe (232-233)

[105] Cities and industry (230-231)

1912 CE: Neuroscience History = Phenobarbital is introduced as the first "epilepsy" drug.

1911 CE: Neuroscience History = Eugen Bleuler coins the term "schizophrenia" to describe a type of mental illness that is characterized by hallucinations and confusion about what is real.

1906 CE: Neuroscience History = John Hughlings Jackson disputes that the idea that disorder symptoms can be used to localize functions in the brain and promotes the idea of holism: the brain working as a whole.

1906 CE: Neuroscience History = German neurologist Alois Alzheimer describes the fatal form of dementia that is named after him: Alzheimer's Disease.

1900 CE: Neuroscience History = Hugo Liepmann describes a series of "apraxias," which are neurological disorders that make movements poorly coordinated.

1899 CE: Neuroscience History = Emil Kraepelin identifies "manic depression" as a distinct form of mental illness. It is now described as "bipolar disorder."

1898 CE: Neuroscience History = The term "autonomic nervous system" is coined to describe the nerves that control the organs and viscera.

1897 CE: Neuroscience History = Charles Scott Sherrington builds on the work of Santiago Ramon Cajal to establish the concept of the "synapse," which is the chemical connection between neurons.

1896 CE: Neuroscience History =Max von Frey catalogs the different "receptors" involved in the cutaneous senses. They detect cold, warmth, and touch.

1890 CE: Neuroscience History = The first studies into sleep deprivation are begun with three men kept awake for 90 hours and made to repeat a series of tests.

1890s CE: Neuroscience History = Sigmund Freud develops the field of psychoanalysis, where mental illness is evaluated as a problem with the mind rather than the physical brain.

1886 CE: Neuroscience History = Robert Louis Stevenson's novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, alludes to the debate in neuroscience about cerebral dominance: whether "higher" parts of the brain control "lower" parts.

1886 CE: Neuroscience History = David Ferrier experiments with electrical stimulation of monkey and dog brains to establish an early "functional map" of the brain.

1885 CE: Neuroscience History = The James-Lange "Theory of Emotion" proposes that feeling an emotion is the result of a physiological change rather than the other way around. Unlike other theories it apportions no role to the conscious mind.

1884 CE: Neuroscience History = Gilles de la Tourette identifies the syndrome of physical and vocal tics that now carries his name.

1881 CE: Neuroscience History = "Dyslexia" is first described by German physician, Oswald Berkhan.

1881 CE: Neuroscience History = Hermann Munk proposes the "occipital lobe" as the location of the "visual cortex."

1880 CE: Neuroscience History = "Narcolepsy" is described by William Gowers: sufferers fall asleep for short periods throughout the day,

1878 CE: Neuroscience History = Jean-Martin Charcot pioneers the use of "hypnotherapy" at the Saltpetriere Hospital, in Paris.

1875 CE: Neuroscience History = Richard Caton discovers an "electric field" around the surface of the brain. In 1929, the electroencephalograph ["EEG"] is developed to use this to measure brain activity.

1875 CE: Neuroscience History = Bernhard von Gudden, the personal physician to the "Mad King" of Bavaria, Ludwig II, invents a "microtome," or thin section cutter. It was capable of slicing a brain into thousands of sections, which made it possible to scrutinize the cellular structure of the brain.

1874 CE: Neuroscience History = Franz Brentano introduces the concept of "intentionality," which describes the idea that a conscious mind is able to represent an object.

1874 CE: Neuroscience History = The location of the "motor cortex," which controls voluntary movements, is confirmed by Roberts Bartholow during his experiments on a dying girl.

1873 CE: Neuroscience History = Camillo Golgi develops the "black reaction" or "Golgi stain" that can be used to reveal the structure and extent of neurons.

1872 CE: Neuroscience History = Max Schultz maps the structure of the retina, differentiating "cone and rod photoreceptors."

1872 CE: Neuroscience History = Charles Darwin writes the book, "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," exploring the purpose of human emotions: he had published "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, which introduced the idea of evolution that has become the basis of all scientific inquiry into the nature of brains and minds.

1872 CE: Neuroscience History = Research into nerves and neurons suggests that the brain is composed of a single vast network of "interconnected cells."

1871 CE: Neuroscience History = Silas Weir Mitchell, a doctor treating maimed U. S. Civil War soldiers, reports on the phenomenon of "phantom limbs."

1871 CE: Neuroscience History = Psychiatrist Henry Maudsley introduces the concept of "mood disorder."

1870 CE: Neuroscience History = Edward Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch use electric probes to stimulate the brain.

1868 CE: Neuroscience History = Josiah Nott and George Gliddon propose that the "cranial anatomy" of different racial groups can be used to prove white superiority. Although now debunked, neurology remains a key feature of racist views.

1867 CE: Neuroscience History = "Taste buds" are identified by Gustav Schwalbe and Otto Loven.

1861 CE: Neuroscience History = Paul Broca identifies the region of the brain that controls speech. It was named "Broca's Area" in his honor.

1856 CE: Neuroscience History = Rudolph Virchow describes "glia cells," which appear to support neurons.

1855 CE: Neuroscience History = Conrad Eckhard and Max Schultz identify the location of "olfactory receptors" in the nasal captivity.

1851 CE: Neuroscience History = Anatomists Alfonso Corti and Ernst Reissner investigate the intricate structure of the ear.

mid-1800s CE: Discovery of germs in mid-1800s.


[1850 CE to 1914 CE]
    "The high point of Imperialism was reached during this historic period but the world's great powers were on an inexorable path toward global conflict." [Sections 105-124] (pages 228-269)

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[104] The Opium Wars (226-227)

[103] Rise of British power in India (224-225)

[102] The abolition of slavery (222-223)

[101] New Zealand and Australia (220-221)

[100] The revolutions of I848 (218-219)

[99] Romanticism and nationalism (216-217)

[98] Industrial Britain (214-215)

[97] The Industrial Revolution (212-213)

[96] Napoleon's downfall (210-211)

[95] Napoleon advances (208-209)

[94] The French Revolution (206-207)

[93] The fate of Native Americans (204-205)

[92] The Enlightenment (202-203)

[91] South American independence (200-201)

[90] The American Revolution (197-198)

[89] The Atlantic slave trade (195-196)

[88] The Agricultural Revolution (193-194)

[87] The Seven Years' War (191-192)

[86] Battle for North America (190-191)

[85] The age of revolution (188-189)

1848 CE: Neuroscience History = An iron rod is pushed through the head of American railroad worker Phineas Gage during a construction accident. He survives with few physical impairments but a reported change in personality.

1842 CE: Neuroscience History = Ether is used as an anesthetic to dull the senses and cause unconsciousness; chloroform is used a few years later.

1837 CE: Neuroscience History = Jan Evangelista Purkyne presents the first drawings of a neuron or brain cell.

1820 CE: Neuroscience History = Charles Bell and Francois Magendie independently formulate the "Bell Magendie Law," which shows how sensory nerves enter the back of the spinal cord and the motor nerves leave from the front.

1817 CE: Neuroscience History = English doctor James Parkinson describes the first cases of Parkinson's disease.

1808 CE: Neuroscience History = Franz Joseph Gall presents his "Theory of Phrenology," which suggests that the character of a person is based on the shape of his or her skull; and by extension, the brain within.

1803 CE: Neuroscience History = Giovanni Aldini, the nephew of electrical pioneer Luigi Galvani, uses an electrical current to reanimate the corpse of a hanged convict.

1750 CE: Neuroscience History = English eye surgeon John Taylor publishes an accurate anatomy of the "optic chiasm," the crossover of the optic nerves.

1709 CE: Neuroscience History = Idealist philosopher George Berkeley questions the relationship between reality and perception, proposing that objects beyond the body's senses do not exist.


[1700 CE to 1850 CE]
    "In this historic period, much of the world was revolutionized by new scientific and political ideas. The Industrial Revolution was perhaps the most far-reaching change." [Sections 85 - 104] (pages 186-227)

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[84] The Dutch golden age (184-185)

[83] The Scientific Revolution (182-183)

[82] Japan unites under the Tokugawa (180-181)

[81] China from the Ming to the Qing (178-179)

[80] Mughal lndia (176-177)

[79] East meets West (174-175)

[78] Reign of the Ottomans (172-173)

[77] British civil wars (170-171)

[76] The Thirty Years‘ War (168-169)

[75] The Reformation (166-167)

[74] Printing (164-165)

[73] The colonial spice trade (162-163)

[72] The Renaissance (160-161)

[71] The age of exchange (158-159)

[70] The colonization of North America (156-157)

[69] The Spanish in America (154-155)

[68] Spanish conquests in the Americas (152-153)

[67] Voyages of exploration (150-151)

[66] The early modern world (148-149)

1696 CE: Neuroscience History = English philosopher John Locke proposes that the human brain is empty of knowledge at birth, and all human knowledge is learned through experience.

1686 CE: Neuroscience History = The symptoms of St. Vitus's Dance, a neurological disorder seen in children, is recorded by Thomas Sydenham. The condition is now known as Sydenham's chorea.

1686 CE: “The universe is but a watch on a larger scale.” by Bernard de Fontenelle, 1686 [Source = the book The Clockwork Universe (page vii)]

1664 CE: Neuroscience History = Thomas Willis discovers a loop of arteries at the base of the brain. This feature is later named the "Circle of Willis" in his honor. Also, the word "neurology" is coined by Willis in his book, Cerebri anatome. That book helps spread the idea that different parts of the brain perform separate functions.

1662 CE: Neuroscience History = Rene Descartes' book, L'Homme, promotes theories about how nerves control involuntary reflex actions and how voluntary acts are mediated through the "pineal gland."

1658 CE: Neuroscience History = Johann Jakob Wepfer suggests that "apoplexy" (stroke) is due to bleeding in the brain.

1600s CE: The 1600s saw the birth of science and the modern age. [Source = the book The Clockwork Universe (page 206-207)]

1543 CE: Neuroscience History = Belgian anatomist, Andreas Vesalius, publishes De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). Books IV and VII show detailed drawings of the nervous system and the brain.

1512 CE: Neuroscience History = Michelangelo shows considerable knowledge of the brain's structure as he hides anatomical drawings among the paintings in the Sistine Chapel.

1504 CE: Neuroscience History = Leonardo da Vinci goes against accepted practice by dissecting human cadavers and creating waxworks of the brain.


[1450 CE to 1700 CE]
    "As horizons widened during this historic period, contact between East and West made trade and cultural exchange global and the world became recognizably modern." [Sections 66 - 84]
    (pages 146-185)

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[65] Aztec and Inca empires (144-145)

[64] North American cultures (142-143)

[63] The Polynesians (140-141)

[62] Mansa Musa (138-139)

[61] African peoples and empires (136-137)

[60] Temple states of Southeast Asia (134-135)

[59] Yuan China to the early Ming (132-133)

[58] The Mongol conquests (130-131)

[57] Medieval Korea and Japan (128-129)

[56] Tang and Song China (126-127)

[55] Medieval East Asia (124-125)

[54] The Reconquista (122-123)

[53] Rise of the Ottomans (120-121)

[52] The Holy Roman Empire (118-119)

[51] The emperor and the pope (116-117)

[50] The Black Death (114-115)

[49] Medieval European trade (112-113)

[48] The Hundred Years' War (110-111)

[47] The inheritors of Rome (185-109)

[46] The Crusades (106-107)

[45] Medieval Renaissance (104-105)

[44] The Silk Road (102-103)

[43] The Normans (100-101)

[42] The Vikings (98-99)

[41] Rule of the caliphs (96-97)

[40] The ascent of Islam (94-95)

[39] The Byzantine Empire (92-93)

[38] The Middle Ages (90-91)

1400s CE: During the 1400s, China's legendary seafarer, Admiral Zheng He, sailed thousands of miles around Asia and Africa in ships the size of soccer fields, spreading Chinese innovations like compasses and gunpowder in the process. He sailed to what are now Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, India, Kenya, and Yemen. Zheng was the commander of massive vessels known as "treasure ships." The soccer-field-size ships were festooned with colorful flags and flanked by support boats including oceangoing stables for horses, aqueous farms for growing bean sprouts to keep scurvy away, and water taxis for local transportation. He spent three decades sailing the waters between China and the East Coast of Africa, setting up diplomatic relationships that would reshape Asian life through seven expeditions. He pushed the limits of what humans could do at sea. (Source: PBS's NOVA 8-13-21)

1370s CE: Neuroscience History = The "dancing mania" spreads through Europe where large numbers of people are affected by involuntary movements. The reason remains unknown, but may have been mass hysteria or mass food poisoning, or a mix of both.

c.1250 CE: Neuroscience History = The Italian Scholastic philosopher Thomas Aquinas attempts to codify the linkage between reason and emotions, with some passions being seen as more basic than others.

1066 CE: Halley's Comet appears overhead and was dreaded, since such old beliefs and fears held prominence in human consciousness, until the 1600s. The 17th century was the birth of science and the modern age. [Source = the book The Clockwork Universe (page 206-207)]

c.1000 CE: Neuroscience History = Arab scientist Alhazen shows how the eyes detect reflected light. His work is the first scientific account of the functioning of a "sense organ."

c.1000 CE: Neuroscience History = Persian polymath Avicenna's thought experiment dubbed, the "Flying Man," asks what would remain of awareness if all motion and perception were removed from the body.

c.1000 CE: Neuroscience History = The fluid-filled ventricles of the brain are now thought to be the seats of various higher functions, such as reason, memory, and perception.


[500 CE to 1450 CE]
    "In medieval times, which is also known as the middle ages, the Christian church kept the status quo in Europe, while parts of Asia and the Americas reached new cultural and technological heights."
    [Sections 38 - 65] (pages 88-145)

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306-337 CE: Constantine reigned as Roman Emperor; and with his mother, he made Christianity the state religion.

177 CE: Neuroscience History = Through numerous dissections on animals and by treating injured gladiators, Greek doctor Galen presents a new synthesis of the form and function of the brain and shows that the major nerves are linked to it.

121-180 CE:The book, The Meditations [or Things to One’s Self], by Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius "gives you a prescribed way in which you can actually reduce genuine suffering in your life because Rome’s great Philosopher King explained a very compelling, very practical way in which you can stop yourself being totally overwhelmed by difficult events." Source: Classical Wisdom online.

c.100 BCE: Neuroscience History = The Roman poet-philosopher Lucretius suggests that sleep is a temporary form of death in which only part of the soul leaves the body. (Previously, the Greek Aristotle had suggested that the brain is shut down as a side-effect of digesting food.)

323 BCE: Alexander the Great dies; his empire dissolves into warring factions.

332 BCE: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and he lays the foundation for Alexandria in Egypt from 332-323 BCE.

333 BCE: Achaemenid [Persian] empire conquered by Macedonian general, Alexander the Great, following his decisive victory in the Battle of Issus:
    The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. The invading troops led by Alexander were outnumbered more than 2:1, yet they defeated the army personally led by Darius III of Achaemenid Persia. The battle was a decisive Macedonian victory and it marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. (Source: › wiki › Wars_of_Alexander_the_Great)
c.350 BCE: Neuroscience History = Greek philosopher Plato suggests that a human being has three souls, which govern different aspects of behavior: logic, courage, and appetite.

c.350 BCE: Neuroscience History = Ancient Greeks believe that vision occurs when the eye emits a beam of light, which reflects back to it off objects.

c.400 BCE: Neuroscience History = Greek physician Hippocrates attributes all health-physical and mental-to the proportion of elemental humors in the body.

448 BCE: Construction of Parthennon in Athens begins.

c.450 BCE: Neuroscience History = The brain is classified as a nonvital organ in the early Chinese medical text, Zang Fu.

c.460 BCE: Parchment replaces clay tablets in Achaemenid administration documents.

479 BCE: Death of Confucius, who developed a humanistic ethical system.

c.480 BCE: Period of Classical Greek culture.

c.483 BCE: Death of Buddha.

490 BCE: Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon.

c.500-450 BCE: Alcmaeon of Croton (Greek presocratic philosopher) released his famous medical text book. He was the first person to identify the brain as the seat of understanding and to distinguish understanding from perception. Both Plato and Philolaus accepted his view that the brain is the seat of intelligence. [Source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

c.500 BCE: Development of esoteric Tantric Buddhist literature.

c.500 BCE: Hebrews evolve the use of 7 day week.

525 BCE: Egypt becomes part of the Persian empire.

[37] The rise of Christianity. (86-87)

[36] The spread of Buddhism. (84-85)

[35] Han Dynasty (82-83)

[34] Age of migrations (80-81)

[33] Ancient American civilizations. (78-79)

[32] Terracotta army (76-77)

[31] China's first emperor (74-75)

[30] Mauryan lndia (72-73)

[29] The roots of lndian history. (70-71)

[28] Roman Empire at its height. (68-69)

[27] Rome builds its power base. (66-67)

[26] Etruscans and the rise of Rome. (64-65)
    note = The Greek World View: To begin studying the Ancient Greeks and discover what is unique in their history, "Let us begin by examining one of its most striking characteristics — a sustained, highly diversified tendency to interpret the world in terms of archetypal principles.

    This tendency was in evidence throughout Greek culture from the Homeric epics onward, though it first emerged in philosophically elaborate form in the intellectual crucible of Athens between the latter part of the fifth century B.C. and the middle of the fourth. Associated with the figure of Socrates, it there received its foundational and in some respects definitive formulation in the dialogues of Plato. At its basis was a view of the cosmos as an ordered expression of certain primordial essences or transcendent first principles, variously conceived as Forms, Ideas, universals, changeless absolutes, immortal deities, divine archai, and archetypes.

    Although this perspective took on a number of distinct inflections, and although there were important countercurrents to this view, it would appear that not only Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and Pythagoras before them and Plotinus after, but indeed Homer and Hesiod, Aeschylus and Sophocles all expressed something like a common vision, reflecting a typically Greek propensity to see clarifying universals in the chaos of life." (Source: Book = The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas that have Shaped Our World by Richard Tarnas. Harmony Books, 1991, 543 pages).
c.530 BCE: Pythagoras, Greek mathematician and mystic, was active.

586 BCE: Beginnings of Greek rationalist philosophy.

[25] The Classical Age (62-63)

600 BCE Rome becomes an urban center.

[24] Alexander the Great (60-61)

]23] Greece and Persia at War (58-59)

]22] The Greek city-states (56-57)

]21] The Phoenicians (54-55)

]20] First cities in the Americas (52-53)

[19] Rise of the Persian Empire (50-51)

[18] Assyria and Babylonia (48-49)

[17] The Iron Age (46-47)

[16] The ancient Levant (44-45)

[15] Bronze Age collapse (42-43)

[14] Bronze Age China (40-41)

[13] Minoans and Mycenaeans (38-39)

[12] The first writing (36-37)

c.1000 BCE: Neuroscience History = Eye diseases are seen as indicative of demonic possession.

c.1391 BCE and 1353 BCE: Amenhotep III ruled over Egypt during the most wealthy period of Ancient Egyptian history. At the height of the Egyptian empire, a large number of temples and lavish public buildings were constructed at the city Aton, the archaeological site. It was part of a grand palatial complex that is unusually well-preserved due to being covered with 20-40 feet of sand for most of the past 3,300 years. This recent discovery in 2020 and excavation in 2021 is the largest ancient Egyptian city ever found. It is the most impressive because of how well it was preserved. In the residential area of the city, there are houses with 10-foot (3m) high walls, made from mud bricks bearing Amenhotep’s seal, which is how the town was dated to this historic time.

c.2500 BCE: Neuroscience History = The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus was unearthed at Luxor, Egypt, in the 1860s. It contains the earliest medical accounts of head injuries.

c.2550-2060 BCE: The Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza was built by the 4th Dynasty pharaoh Khufu or Cheops. It is located on the outskirts of Cairo. This spectacular complex was built as a tomb for pharaoh Khufu. The Great Pyramid is the largest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which were all still observable about 2,000 years ago. However, just the Great Pyramid of Giza, which is the earliest by far, is the only one still largely intact. Together with two other large nearby pyramids, the mausoleum’s three pyramids are thought to contain over two million stone blocks, some weighing as much as 15 tons. But how the structures were made without modern machinery remains a big mystery. Around 15 million people visit the site every year because it is the most iconic spot in all of Egypt.

[11] Egypt of the pharaohs: (34-35)

[10] The first cities (32-33)

[9] The first civilizations (30-31)


[3000 BCE to 500 CE]
    "Ancient history stretches from when the first cities developed around 3000 BCE to the fall of powers such as the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty in China in the first centuries of the Common Era." [Sections 9-37] (pages 28-87)

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[8] Villages to towns (26-27)

[7] Origins of agriculture (24-25)

note = +10,000 BCE: Neuroscience History = trepanation procedures are seen in human skulls. This procedure involves boring or chiseling a hole into the skull. It is conjectured that the idea was to release the evil spirits thought to be causing physical and mental problems.

[6] The first farmers (22-23)

[5] Peopling the Americas (20-21)

[4] The first Australians (18-19)

[3] Out of Africa (16-17)

[2] The first humans (14-15)

[1] From apes to farmers (12-13)


[7 MYA - 3000 BCE]
    "Before written records began around 3000 BCE, the Story of Humans was recorded for millions of years by the fossils and archaeological traces our ancestors left behind... Fossil remains recently dated to 335,000 to 236,000 years ago suggest that Homo sapiens first appeared then!" [Sections 1-8] (pages 10-27)

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Quote = "I think Africa was the cradle, the crucible that created us as Homo sapiens." by Paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson, 2006 (page 14)

note = Homo Sapiens Prevails [300,000 to 50,000 YA]: "When the first Homo sapiens became established, all other known African hominins died out except one. Fossil remains recently dated to 335,000 to 236,000 years ago suggest that a species named Homo naledi was inhabiting southern Africa at about the time Homo sapiens first appeared. Whether the species interacted is unknown, but with Homo naledi's disappearance, our species would have had Africa to itself." (page 15)

note = Our Own Genus Appears (2.58 MYA to 300,000 YA): "Homo habilis, the first member of our genus in the fossil record, evolved and, for a time, lived alongside later Australopithecus and Paranthropus species. Stone tools from this period have been found, but it is difficult to assign them to a species. Homo ergaster was the first hominin to have humanlike body proportions. It likely gave rise to Homo heidelbergensis, from which modern humans evolved." (page 15)

note = Striding Human Gait Evolved [3.7 to 3.0 MYA] Kenyanthropus --- known from a single skull --- and early Paranthropus --- with its enormous molars --- lived alongside several species of the genus Australopithecus, one of which left the famous Laetoli footprints, showing that a striding gait had evolved." (page 15)

    note = Humanlike Apes Diversify [5.3 to 2.58 MYA]: "Fossils from this time indicate a diversity of hominin species. Fossils of Ardipite cus ramidus, found in Ethiopia, include the oldest near-complete hominin skeleton." (page 15)

note = "The First Humans [7 to 6 MYA]: The human story began in Africa 7 or 6 million years ago. Through the fossil record of this vast continent, we can draw a complex family tree of human relatives of which our species, Homo sapiens, is the last to survive." (page 14)

note = "The First Humanlike Apes [7 to 5.5 MYA]: "The sparce record of the earliest hominins --- Sahelanthropus and Orrorin --- shows that although they had shorter faces and smaller teeth, they had brains no larger than those of chimpanzees. The sole Sahelanthropus skull was discovered in Chad, far removed from other hominin sites in eastern and southern Africa. Fossils of both Orrorin and Ardipithecus kadabba are thought to exhibit features linked to developing two-legged locomotion." (page 14)

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What happened?

note = "Sixty-six million years ago an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs in a fiery global catastrophe. But we know little about how their successors, the mammals, recovered and took over the world. However, amazing new fossils found in ordinary rocks have revealed how mammals took over after an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs."

"An astonishing trove of fossils has revealed a dramatic new picture of how rat-sized creatures ballooned in size and began to evolve into the vast array of species — from cheetahs to bats to whales to humans — that rule our planet today."

"The new NOVA PBS TV program “RISE OF THE MAMMALS” first streamed December 8, 2021 and may now be free on PBS channels."

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650 MILLION YEARS AGO: Emergence of Jellyfish

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The Evolution of Earth
from the Big Bang

    by Pablo Carlos Budassi. Anshool Deshmukh. 4-22-22 [This article was published as part of Visual Capitalist's Creator Program, which features data-driven visuals from Creators around the world]
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The Evolution of Earth
from the Big Bang

Outline of Eras and Periods

[Note: The order of ERAs is Reversed
Oldest on BOTTOM - Newest on TOP]

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instantly go to:
The Evolution of Earth
from the Big Bang

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      "YA" = Years Ago
      "MYA" = Million Years Ago
      "BCE" = Before Common Era
      (formerly "BC")
      "CE" = Common Era (formerly "AD")
      "c." = Approximately, before a date
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    by DK Publishing/Smithsonian, 2018
    with a forword by Peter Snow (440 pages)

    TIMELINE (pages 348-425)

    INDEX (pages 426-439)

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (pages 439-440)

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